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Spiking and Flowering of the Phalaenopsis – Part II. Flowering technique

 
Note: 1. Growing temperature at day and night, Tdg, Tng.
2. Pretreatment temperature at day and night, Tdp, Tnp.
3. Cooling temperature at day and night, Tdc, Tnc.
4. Spike extension temperature at day and night, Tde, Tne.
5. Blossoming temperature at day and night, Tdb, Tnb.
 

Introduction

The flowering phase is the last stage of Phalaenopsis production. The timing and quality of flowering influences the sale price.
 

Table of contents

Flowering technique

Part II. Flowering technique
  The flowering phase is the last stage of Phalaenopsis production. The timing and quality of flowering influences the sale price.
  Temperature is the key factor in the flowering phase. Others factors, such as light intensity and fertilizing are introduced in Table 1. The temperature factor is classified into five different day (d) and night (n) stages.
1. Growing temperature, Tdg, Tng.
2. Pretreatment temperature, Tdp, Tnp.
3. Cooling temperature, Tdc, Tnc.
4. Spike extension temperature, Tde, Tne.
5. Blossoming temperature, Tdb, Tnb.
  The flowering stage is divided into two phases:
1. Spike extension phase: the period when the spike length from 3-5 cm when all
appear.
2. Blossoming phase: the period from when the buds begin to develop to when all
buds are developed.
 

A. Spike extension phase

The light intensity, light period and fertilizing concentrations (N-P-K, 20-20-20) arethe same for the growing stage. The day temperature ranges from Tdc and Tdg and the night temperature from Tnc and Tng. The higher day temperature could increase the extending speed of spiking.
  However, if the setting day temperature is higher than the growing temperature, a leaf will develop on the spike. The plant will switch back to the vegetative phase after a reproductive (flowering) stage. This is called "Keiki's".
  The temperature difference between day and night influences the length of the stem. If the day temperature is high, the first bud will form far away from the base of the leaf. The flowering quality is poor.
 

B. Blossoming phase

  In this stage, the first bud is opened and the other buds then continuously open. The temperature is the key parameter for the flower quality. If the day temperature is too high, the flower color will fade and branch numbers will decrease. The higher night temperature will decrease flower numbers and reduce the flower size.
 The common problems of the bud development phase include the following:
1. Only the development of spathe: no bud is formed.
2. Buds do not open further.
3. Flower buds do not swell.
4. Buds begin to drop.
The reason for the above physiological abnormalities is the lack of carbon source. In other words, the dry matter cannot transport from the source (leaves) to the sinks (buds or flower). However, the roots also required dry matter. If roots are not in good health, the dry matter is transported to the roots priority. The flower quality is degraded.
  The common problems of bud development are due to lack of dry matter. The basic requirements of plants for the high quality flowers are as follows:
1. The roots are healthy with no salt accumulation and no insect damage.
2. The leaves are in good conditions with no pest infection and no damaged.
3. Watering and fertilizing are maintained.
  Abnormalities differ widely between species. However, the principle of plant physiology always is the basic guide for the management of flowering stage.

 

Table 1. Environmental factors of different stages for several

    Data sources:
Culture Guide
of Floricultura b.v.
Big white variety: V3 Small white
variety:
amabilis
variety:
Hsin-Yen
Beauty
variety:
Fortune
Saltzman
variety:
Queen
Beer
I. Growing
   Stage
1.Tdg
2.Tng
3.Light
28℃
26℃
4500-6000 lux
28-32℃
23-25℃
23000 lux
24-30℃
22-24℃
16000 lux
26-30℃
19-26℃
18000 lux
24-30℃
18-22℃
15000 lux
28-32℃
20-23℃
15000 lux
Ⅱ. Pretreatment 1.Tdp
2.Tnp
3.Light
28℃
26℃
4500-6000 lux
30-34℃
23-25℃
28000 lux
28-32℃
22-24℃
20000 lux
28-32℃
19-26℃
21000 lux
28-30℃
21-22℃
18000 lux
30-32℃
20-23℃
18000 lux
Ⅲ. Spiking 1.Tdc
2.Tnc
3.Light
20℃
18℃
7000-8000 lux
20-24℃
17-22℃
26000 lux
18-22℃
18-20℃
18000 lux
18-24℃
17-19℃
20000 lux
18-20℃
17-18℃
16000 lux
20-24℃
18-19℃
16000 lux
Ⅳ. Spike
   extending
1.Tde
2.Tne
3.Light
23℃
20℃
6000 lux
22-26℃
17-22℃
23000 lux
20-24℃
18-22℃
18000 lux
18-24℃
17-19℃
18000 lux
18-22℃
17-18℃
16000 lux
20-24℃
18-19℃
16000 lux
Ⅴ. Blossoming 1.Tdb
2.Tnb
3.Light
23℃
20℃
10000 lux
20-24℃
18-22℃
22000 lux
20-24℃
18-22℃
16000 lux
18-23℃
17-19℃
18000 lux
18-20℃
17-18℃
15000 lux
20-22℃
18-19℃
15000 lux

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Date: 2015-01-08 14:17, source: Professor Chiachung Chen, Ph. D. Biosystems Engineering Laboratory National ChungHsing University 250 KuoKuang Rd., Taichung, Taiwan 40227 Tel: 886-4-22857562, Fax: 886-4-22857135 Web site: bse.nchu.edu.tw Email: ccchen@dragon.nchu.edu.tw